Amino Acids & Poultry Health: A review by Dr Yumin Bao

 

Our Animal Nutritionist, Dr Yumin Bao, has recently reviewed the ideal amino acid profile in broiler chicken diets on alleviating gut disturbance. He indicates that as dietary Lys concentration is increased, all other essential amino acids need also to be increased. This paper has been accepted as a poster at the 30th Australian Poultry Synopsis in February 2019. Read below a summary.

 

Ideal amino acid profile and chicken gut disturbance: a review

By Dr Yumin Bao

Introduction

There is considerable interest in the development of low protein diets balanced with supplemental amino acids for broiler chickens due to economic, environmental and bird welfare advantages (Moss et al., 2018). However, under commercial feeding conditions, chickens are exposed to various challenges of infectious and non-infectious origin. For challenges of infectious origin, even without any clinical signs of disease, animals affected by chronic subclinical disease or intestinal parasites use nutrients less efficiently for production than healthy animals. Challenges of non-infectious origin such as heat stress, mycotoxins and other anti-nutritional factors also have impacts on nutrient digestibility. Therefore, it may be necessary to set the intestinal requirements of some amino acids higher than recommended in order to avoid compromising the immune system (Bortoluzzi et al., 2018). It is reported that reduced protein diets may result in amino acids being redistributed away from growth and production processes, toward intestinal cells involved in immune and inflammatory responses (Le Floc’h  et al., 2004). Further, reduced-protein diets may change amino acid availability and promote negative interactions among amino acids (Nascimento et al., 2016). In addition, an unbalanced supply of amino acids in the diet can be deleterious to the immune system (Li et al., 2007). Thus, an ideal balance of AA is crucial for broiler chicken gut health in particular if birds are reared without antibiotics. 

 

Amino acid nutrition and disturbance of intestinal function

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a multifactorial, bacterial disease caused by Clostridium perfringens (CP) which produces a variety of extracellular toxins and invasive enzymes in the broiler chicken gut. It is widely believed that coccidiosis, wheat or barley based diets with a high proportion of fish meal and removal of in-feed antibiotics are major disposing factors (Kaldusdal et al., 2016). Due to a damaged intestinal mucosa, subclinical NE usually results in poor body weight gain associated with reduced feed intake (Keerqin et al., 2017), and it is assumed that needs for some functional amino acids for immunity will be met by mobilizing skeletal muscle protein (Reeds and Jahoor, 2001). Compared to soybean meal, addition of fish meal might result in deficiency in arginine (Arg), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), aspartic acid (Asp), histine (His), phenylalanine (Phe) and glutamic acid (Glu) (Figure 1, adapted from Lemme et al., 2004) . Compared to maize, use of wheat or barley might lead to a diet deficient in alanine (Ala), Leu and Asp (Figure 2, adapted from Lemme et al., 2004). Adding Arg has been demonstrated to reduce intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial challenge (Tan et al., 2014). Leu, Ile, Asp and Glu play vital roles in the metabolism and function of leucocytes and lymphocytes. Glutamine is important for maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier and the structure of the intestinal mucosa. Increasing total methionine levels from 0.35 to 1.2% in the diet of chickens infected with Newcastle Disease virus markedly enhanced immune responses: T-cell proliferation, plasma IgG levels, leucocyte migration and antibody titres (Li et al., 2007). Considering that the intestinal immune system is responsible for initiating and propagating responses to commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, ideal AA profile may play an important role in alleviating chicken gut disturbance.

Ideal AA profile for broiler chickens

The ideal AA profile, with AA in ratio to lysine, was first proposed and tested in broiler chickens by Baker and Han (1994). Because the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of AAs are more likely to be additive in mixed diets, most ideal AA profiles for broiler chickens are provided based on SID values. Table 1 summarizes several ideal AA profiles based on essential AA SID values. Although there are no significant differences in AA ratios to SID lys among those ideal AA profiles, dietary SID Lys concentration will have strong impact on the order of dietary limiting AA.  For a typical wheat-soybean meal based diet, 1.20% SID Lys was perfectly matched the ideal AA profile recommended for Cobb 500 chickens (Figure 3). However, compared with the ideal AA profile recommended by Rostagno (Nascimento et al., 2016) (Figure 4), almost all essential amino acids were deficient in this diet, potentially disturbing gut health of the bird.

Conclusion

An ideal AA profile in broiler chicken diets may alleviate gut disturbance. When dietary Lys concentration is increased, other essential AA concentrations also need to be increased accordingly.   

About Redox
Redox is a leading commodity and speciality chemical distributor with 11 sales offices throughout Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States. With more than 350 staff and sales in excess of A$654 million last financial year, Redox brings the best products from around the world to clients in over 200 unique industries.

REDOX: AN AUSTRALIAN TRUSTED TRADER

Redox has recently been accredited as a Trusted Trader by the Australian Government, recognising our compliant trade practices and a secure international supply chain.

Administered by Home Affairs with the Australian Border Force, The Australian Trusted Trader program secures our borders and facilitates legitimate trade. It reduces red tape, improves certainty in export markets, and expedites the flow of cargo in and out of Australia, which means faster access to market.

As a Trusted Trader, Redox has access to a growing range of benefits that simplify our customs processes and enable a more streamlined supply of goods. These include:

  • priority processing of our goods through customs
  • consolidated cargo clearance
  • trade facilitation benefits with partner countries
  • access to a dedicated border force account manager
  • access to the Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation Travel Business Card

The accreditation process involved a thorough review of Redox systems and processes by the Australian Border Force. This included validation of our physical site security, goods security, transport security, personnel security, systems capabilities, security risk assessments, internal audits, business structure, compliance with Customs related laws, and accuracy of Customs information provided to Australian Border Force.

Australian Trusted Trader accreditation will inevitably save time and money for Redox, benefitting all stakeholders. With the simplified movement of goods our suppliers will be better supported to meet our growing demand, while our customers will benefit from our quicker and more responsive supply chain.

To read more about Redox or to contact a representative visit our website at www.redox.com.

About Redox
Redox is a leading commodity and speciality chemical distributor with 11 sales offices throughout Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States. With more than 350 staff and sales in excess of A$654 million last financial year, Redox brings the best products from around the world to clients in over 200 unique industries.

Merry Christmas from Redox

From all at Redox, we wish you a safe and Merry Christmas, and a Happy New Year!

We will be closed for all public holidays across all our branches. See below for our branches closure dates:

Australia

Tuesday 25th December 2018– Christmas Day

Wednesday 26th December 2018– Boxing Day

Tuesday 1st January 2019 – New Year’s Days

 

New Zealand

Tuesday 25th December 2018– Christmas Day

Wednesday 26th December 2018– Boxing Day

Tuesday 1st January 2019 – New Year’s Day

Wednesday 1st January 2019 – Day after New Year’s Day

 

Malaysia

Tuesday 25th December 2018– Christmas Day

Tuesday 1st January 2019 – New Year’s Days

 

United States

Tuesday 25th December 2018– Christmas Day

Tuesday 1st January 2019 – New Year’s Days

 

Due to the reduced capacity and availability of our transport contractors, deliveries maybe affected. It is advised that customers plan longer than usual lead times. For any enquiries please talk to your representative or click here to complete our online enquiry form.

About Redox
Redox is a leading commodity and speciality chemical distributor with 11 sales offices throughout Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States. With more than 350 staff and sales in excess of A$654 million last financial year, Redox brings the best products from around the world to clients in over 200 unique industries.

Recall of Redox Formalin for the Control of Footrot in Sheep

About Redox
Redox is a leading commodity and speciality chemical distributor with 11 sales offices throughout Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States. With more than 350 staff and sales in excess of A$654 million last financial year, Redox brings the best products from around the world to clients in over 200 unique industries.

Redox in top 16 % for CSR

Since the last evaluation of our Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR), our overall score has increased thanks to the implementation of additional measures. EcoVadis has awarded Redox again with a Silver Medal rating for 2018.

The overall score increased to 49, representing a result well above the industry average. This score maintains a confirmed CSR score ranking for Redox. Redox CSR initiatives consists of:

  • Structured and proactive CSR approach,
  • Engagement/policies and tangible actions on major issues,
  • Reporting on actions and Key Performance Indicators.

Highlights of the scorecard showed that:

  • In the overall score, Redox was ranked within the top 16% of companies,
  • Within the Environment section, Redox is in the top 26% of companies,
  • In ethics, Redox is amongst the top 13% of companies.

With continued evaluation and improvement of our CSR, Redox plans to continue to increase its score and maintain its CSR responsibilities.   

For more information about Redox please visit our website at www.redox.com.

About Redox
Redox is a leading commodity and speciality chemical distributor with 11 sales offices throughout Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and the United States. With more than 350 staff and sales in excess of A$654 million last financial year, Redox brings the best products from around the world to clients in over 200 unique industries.

News Feed

Amino Acids & Poultry Health: A review by Dr Yumin Bao

Our Animal Nutritionist, Dr Yumin Bao, has recently reviewed the ideal amino acid profile in broiler chicken diets on alleviating gut disturbance. He indicates that as dietary Lys concentration is increased, all other essential amino acids need also to be increased. This paper has been accepted as a poster at the 30th Australian Poultry Synopsis in February 2019. Read below a summary.

REDOX: AN AUSTRALIAN TRUSTED TRADER
Merry Christmas from Redox
Redox in top 16 % for CSR
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