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Yucca schidigera is an herbaceous plant of lily family, native to the deserts of the southwestern United State and northern Mexico. It contains two active compounds: at least 10.5% steroidal saponins and polyphenols. Saponins are similarly in structure to Glucocorticoids in animals.

Previously It was thought that the Yucca extract could bind ammonia and therefore reduce its emission from pets and other animals. However, ammonia concentrations in the gut are at least 100-fold greater than the concentrations of the yucca extract. Currently it is believed that the high circulating levels of Glucocorticoid in response to various oxidative stress including heat stress result in enhanced degradation of amino acids to generate ammonia and reduced protein synthesis in skeleton muscle.

Under conditions of the oxidative stress including heat stress, the Yucca extract can block the bonding of glucocorticoids to their receptors in cells. Thus, the yucca extract could alleviate the oxidative stress including heat stress and reduce ammonium emission in the stress situation (Table 1). When broiler chickens were housed at an average ambient temperature of 24˚C, dietary supplementation of Yucca extract (120 ppm and 180 ppm) did not affect the feed intake or body weight gain (Wu, 2018). However, in table 1, when the ambient temperature was naturally elevated from 27˚C to 37˚C, the Yucca supplementation improved body weight gain by 38-43% and FCR 46% to 52% compared with the control group.

Table 1 The effect of the addition of the Yucca extract on broiler chicken performance under the heat stress

 

Yucca saponins also have anti-protozoal activity by supressing protozoal infection of the intestine. It is reported that Yucca saponins could bind with cholesterol in protozoal cell membrane and destroy the integrity of the protozoal membrane. Coccidiosis is one of the main challenges for the worldwide poultry industry. Although coccidiostats are often rotated, the poultry industry is challenged by resistance of the Eimeria parasites to these treatments. In a recent trial conducted in the Europe, Kozlowski et al (2022) reported that both the anticoccidial and 500 g/Mt Yucca supplementation showed significant improvement in body weight (2150 g and 2058 g vs. 1998 g, Table 2)

It is now also reported that Yucca polyphenolics have anti-inflammatory activity and could prevent arthritis. The generation of reactive oxygen species such as nitric oxide is an important factor in the development of rheumatic arthritis. Yucca polyphenolics may inhibit nitric oxide production and prevent arthritis.

Table 2. The effect of supplemental Yucca extract on challenged chicken performance (d1-35)

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

Rumen protective choline (RPC) is a double coated form of choline designed to withstand the microbial degradation in the rumen. RPC product feature is shown in Figure 1. Supplementation of RPC in dairy cattle has been shown some positive effects on milk production and cow health.

Figure 1. RPC production feature

RPC supports the liver’s function, particularly during the critical transition period, helping cows to use energy more efficiently and prevent fatty liver syndrome. It also plays a role in the transport of nutrients across cell membranes, in the blood stream and mammary gland. Recent studies in USA indicated that addition of RPC in the transition period could increase 2 kg milk production per day per cow.

Interestingly this effect could carry over the entire 40 weeks (280 days) of lactation period. Possibly the better health in the transition period by adding RPC extended the life span of the mammary cells or reduced the rate of cell death in the mammary gland.

Previously it was thought that RPC was a nutrient that would be fed only to fat, over conditioned cows. It is now believed that supplementing RPC to a low body condition score cow also increases milk and colostrum production.

Commercially, two experiments were conducted in China. In trial 1, during 21 days before calving to 21 days post calving period, 50 grams of Meno-Pro (RPC) were fed to 25 dairy cows per day per cow. Another 25 dairy cows were not supplemented with RPC as the control group. The milk production in 7 weeks of lactation period is shown in Figure 2.  Within 7 weeks, adding RPC increased total milk yield by 1482 kg for 25 dairy cows. Average milk yield increased by 1.21 kg per day per cow.

In trial 2, during 21 days before calving to 21 days post calving period, 50 grams of Meno-pro (RPC) were fed to 50 dairy cows per day per cow. Another 50 cows were not supplemented with RPC as the control group. The milk yield in 42 weeks of lactation period is shown in Figure 3. Averagely, the addition of RPC only in the transition period could increase total milk yield 442 kg per cow.

Figure 2. Effect of RPC on milk production in 7 weeks of lactation period

Figure 3. Effect of RPC on milk production in entire lactation (42 weeks) period

 

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

 

It is well known that in the current floor pen with deep litter system, day old broiler chickens could benefit from non-starch polysaccharides components in the litter to establish the dynamic microbiota. However, when the intestinal microbiota becomes complex and diversified over time and environmental conditions, long term exposure to faeces and ammonia pollution environments has a higher risk of infection with pathogenic bacteria and parasites. 

For decades, chicken enteric disease including necrotic enteritis (NE) and coccidiosis have been controlled by using antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and coccidiostats. However, due to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and coccidiosis, which is a threat to animal and human health, the use of AGP and coccidiostats has been restricted or banned in the poultry industry. Thus, alternatives production strategies including vaccinations, organic acids, prebiotics, probiotics, essential oils, postbiotics or yeast peptides to control NE and coccidiosis have been explored.

The Glucose Oxidase (GOD) is exogenously produced by specific fungi fermentation to oxidize β-D-Glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide, consuming large amounts of oxygen at the same time in the chicken gut. Therefore, it can protect against oxidative stress and directly kill some pathogenic bacteria or Eimeria parasites. Gluconic acid is a kind of organic acid, which acts as an acidifier in the intestine to produce the short chain fatty acids such as butyric acid.  GOD also plays an important role in colour development, flavour, texture, and increasing the shelf life of food products. Due to its characteristics of producing natural acid, deoxygenation and sterilization, GOD has been defined in AAFCO list as 70.3 and widely used in animal production.

Recently, the University of New England (UNE) conducted a NE challenging trial to investigate the GOD potentials to ameliorate the impact of NE on chicken performance and intestinal health.  The standard, positive controls (PC) were formulated based on wheat-sorghum-soybean meal as the commercial diets. Negative control (NC) chickens were challenged with Eimeria parasites at day 9 and clostridium perfringens at day 14. Another 4 treatments consist of PC or NC diets supplemented with antibiotics, GOD 100 g/MT, 200 g/MT and 300 g/MT, respectively.

The effect of GOD on chicken performance before challenging was shown in Figure 1. It is clearly shown that adding GOD significantly improved chicken body weight gain by 9% and FCR was improved by 10 points. From the growth point of view, AGP supplementation did not show any impact on chicken body weight gain and FCR.

However, during the challenging period (Figure 2), AGP significantly improved the chicken body weight gain and FCR compared with the positive control. Interestingly, during the recovery period (Figure 3) or chickens had the longer-term exposure to faeces and ammonia pollution, chickens in positive control and supplemented with the lowest GOD showed worst performance, but chickens in the negative control showed the best performance, possibly due to that Eimeria challenged birds boomed their immune system for the possible coccidiosis infection. It might also imply that supplementation of GOD could replace both coccidiostat AGP.

However, the lower level of GOD might have the negative effect of Eimeria vaccination.

Figure 1. The effect of GOD on chicken performance before challenging.

 

Figure 2. The effect of GOD on chicken performance during challenging.

Figure 3. Efeect of GOD on chicken body weight gain after challenging period (d 28-35)

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

Rumen microorganisms can utilize non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as ammonia to synthesis rumen microbial proteins for cattle and sheep. Urea is a cheap source of NPN but the hydrolysis rate of urea in the rumen is speedy and exceeds the ammonia utilisation rate of rumen microorganism. Surplus ammonia is harmful to the animal and is also associated with increased methane production.  Coated urea is designed to provide a controlled release of urea in the rumen, allowing for a more efficient utilisation of nitrogen by rumen microbes.

In Figure 1, it is clearly shown that compared with Menogen plus (the coated urea), normal urea is almost completely degraded within 20 minutes. On the other hand, the degradation rate of soybean meal or canola meal is too slow. Within 8 hours, the degradation rate of soybean meal and canola meal is about 50% and 30%, respectively, considered as the good source of rumen undegraded protein.

However, less ammonia concentration may not provide sufficient nitrogen source for rumen microorganisms to effectively synthesise rumen microbial protein. Therefore, addition of the coated urea could provide stable nitrogen supply for rumen microbes. It is reported that providing 90 grams coated urea per day per cow could replace 450 grams soybean meal and increase milk production by 0.85 kg per day per cow.

Figure 1. The degradation rate of different nitrogen sources in Rumen

In summary, this controlled release urea can lead to several benefits in terms of methane reduction and overall animal nutrition:

  1. Reduced ammonia levels:

The coated urea undergoes gradual hydrolysis in the rumen, releasing ammonia at a controlled rate. This controlled ammonia release ensures a stable nitrogen supply for rumen microbes, reducing excess levels. High ammonia levels in the rumen are associated with increased methane production.

  1. Improved microbial protein synthesis:

The coated urea supports the growth of rumen microbes by providing a steady and controlled supply of ammonia. These microbes are responsible for breaking down fibrous materials and producing microbial protein. Efficient microbial protein synthesis can lead to improved feed digestion and reduce d methane emissions.

  1. Optimised nitrogen utilisation:

The coated urea allows for better synchronisation between available nitrogen and microbial needs. This synchronisation can lead to improved utilisation of dietary protein and reduced excretion of nitrogen in the form of urea. Lower nitrogen excretion can contribute to reduced ammonia levels and subsequently, reduced methane production.

  1. Balanced rumen environment:

The coated urea helps in maintaining a stable rumen PH and stable pH conditions are conductive to the growth of specific microbes that produce less methane during feed digestion.

  1. Increased fibre digestibility:

Improved microbial efficiency and balanced rumen pH can enhance the digestion of fibrous materials. Enhanced fibre digestion results in fewer substrates available for methane-producing microbes, leading to reduced methane emission.

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

The beginning of 2024 has raised concerns about a potential crisis in the International Shipping industry, reminiscent of the challenges faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Various factors, including instability in the Red Sea, a drought affecting the Panama Canal, and industrial action at DP World, impact both containerised freight’s cost and reliability. In the last week of 2023, shipping rates surged by an unprecedented 40% within a single week, indicating significant disruptions. [1]

Geo-political issues, war & Houthi rebel attacks in the Red Sea have caused an undeniable shock to the global supply chain. Major Containerised shipping lines are now avoiding transiting the Suez Canal and instead diverting around the cape of Good Hope – adding three weeks to their transit times. With 30%[2] of Global container trade passing through the Suez, this has had significant flow on effects to all areas of shipping. Prices have been reported to have surged up to five-fold on European routes and doubled or tripled on other non-European routes. [3]

Red Sea at Aqaba in Jordan – International Shipping impacted by geo-political tensions in the Red Sea. Shipping lines diverting around Cape of Good Hope.

The Panama Canal is facing a severe drought, reducing its operational capacity. As a result, daily traffic has decreased by nearly 40% [5] compared to the previous year, with restrictions allowing only 24 vessels per day instead of the usual 36[4]. This reduction in capacity is impacting shipping lines, either causing them to divert around South America or resort to rail transport across Panama. Customers on the East Coast of America are particularly affected, experiencing increased prices and extended transit times.

Although the Asia to Oceania trade might not be directly affected by issues in the Red Sea and Panama Canal individually, combined, these areas traditionally handle a significant portion of containerised freight movements. Rerouting vessels around Africa alone reduces global containerised shipping capacity by 9% [6], leading to vessels being reallocated from Oceania and other regions. This imbalance results in price hikes and difficulties in accessing empty containers.

While Industrial action at DP World ceased at the beginning of February, the flow of effects will continue to be felt for the coming weeks and months. With a backlog of over 50,000 containers across most Australian ports and vessels out of rotation, delays can continue to be expected until this backlog is cleared. Whether related or not, the deal was reached on the same day as DP World announced prices increases of 52%[7], which will be passed on to the importer.

The hope for stability in the International Shipping Market post the Lunar New Year Holidays is tempered by continued increased transit times due to diversions around the Suez and Panama Canal. This ongoing situation will lead to sustained price and scheduling pressures. Planning ahead, allowing additional lead time, and considering increasing order sizes are advisable. Customers are encouraged to consult with their Redox representatives to devise strategies for minimising risks and addressing any shipping challenges that may arise.

 

Layer chickens’ dietary fibre comprises a significant part of plant feedstuffs and is chemically defined as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The NSP include various fibre types such as lignin, β-glucans, arabinoxylans, uranic acid, galactose, and mannose. 

Soluble NSP such as arabinoxylans in wheat or mannans in soybean meal will increase the chicken gut viscosity, resulting in detrimental effect on chicken performance and egg production. Therefore, adding xylanase and β-mannnase blend to layer chicken wheat-soy based diets could remove these anti-national factors and reduce the energy cost of immune responses.

Recently, White et al (2021) reported that adding β-mannnanase to the corn-soy based diets for laying hens significantly increased egg production by 6% (88.55% vs 94.94%). In laying chickens feed formulation, adding β-mannanase could save about 100 Kcal/kg apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and 1%-unit crude protein level.

In Germany, VTR conducted a layer chicken trial to investigate the effect of the exogenous xylanase on egg production and apparent N-corrected metabolizable energy (AMEn).  On the base of a standard corn-wheat-soybean meal diets, 100, 150, and 200 grams/Mt xylanase were added to include a total of 4 treatments.   The effect of xylanase on egg production and egg quality was listed in Table 1. It is clearly shown that adding 200 g/MT xylanase increased egg production by 1.8% and significantly reduced dirty and broken eggs. It cam also increase about 150 kcal AMEn.

Table 1. The effect of Xylanase on egg production and egg quality (week 25 to week 32)

On the other hand, the insoluble NSP such as lignocellulos have a positive effect on animal health and productivity. In particular, for free rage layer chickens, feather pecking, and cannibalism are a serious problem and the increased insoluble NSP or fibre has been widely shown to reduce feather pecking and cannibalistic behaviours. This effect is generally attributed to increased time spent eating, thus reducing redirected behaviours. JELUVET®lignucellulose contains 67.7% crude fibre, mainly comprising of cellulose and hemicellulos (62%). Therefore, it is a good source of insoluble NSP to reduce feather pecking for free range layer chickens.

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

In the often-overlooked realm of soil lies a bustling ecosystem teeming with microorganisms, where a mere teaspoon of soil houses more life than the entire human population on Earth. This intricate world is vital in maintaining soil fertility, influencing nutrient cycling, enhancing plant growth, and even breaking down toxic substances.

Microbial Abundance and Importance:

Delving into the microscopic universe, we find staggering numbers: a kilogram of fertile soil can host 500 billion bacteria, 10 billion actinomycetes, and 1 billion fungi. These microorganisms play a crucial role in soil fertility by cycling nutrients, improving structure, and supporting plant health. They also act as nature’s recyclers, breaking down toxic substances through enzymatic activities.

Factors Influencing Microbial Presence:

Various factors, such as temperature, humidity, oxygen levels, soil pH, nutrient availability, and management practices, influence the presence and activity of microorganisms in the soil. Temperature, in particular, plays a pivotal role in microbial development; at very low temperatures, the enzymatic activity of these organisms is reduced, and protein denaturation may occur at high temperatures. 

Humidity and oxygen concentrations also have an important role; in well-aerated soil, there will be greater energy production, a more significant population, and activity of microorganisms. For example, thiobacillus, vital in solubilisation, works more quickly under warm and moist conditions. Low temperatures slow the action of Thiobacillus bacteria.

Microbial Fertilisers and Their Role:

Microbial fertilisers contribute to soil and plant health, comprising bacteria, algae, fungi, and biological compounds. These microbes colonise the rhizosphere upon application, multiplying rapidly and producing trillions of beneficial organisms within a few days. These microbes can act as biological predators, producing antibiotics, enzymes against pathogens, and phytohormone production that benefit plant growth.

Microbial Benefits:

The advantages of soil microorganisms are multifaceted. They help control the spread of diseases through competition, antibiosis, parasitism, and resistance induction. These tiny life forms also play vital roles in nutrient mineralisation, phosphate solubilisation, and controlling soil salinity.

Microorganisms improve a plant’s ability to withstand environmental stresses like water scarcity by employing different mechanisms, such as producing substances that keep the roots hydrated.

Moreover, microorganisms aid in bioremediation, mitigating phytotoxicity and heavy metal contamination by metabolising these substances into inert forms. They enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as water stress, through various mechanisms, including producing substances that hydrate roots.

Mycorrhizae – Nature’s Symbiotic Partners:

A significant player in the soil ecosystem is mycorrhizae, a mutualistic symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots found in over 80% of vascular plants. This partnership enhances nutrient and water transfer, improves soil structure, and boosts plant vigour. Mycorrhizae secrete enzymes that break down nutrients, making them accessible to plants.

Biological Solutions for Sustainable Agriculture:

Highlighting the potential of microbial products, such as Redox Bactivate 3-5 Liquid and Reox Bactivate Biocult, we witness how specific strains of bacteria contribute to better and healthier soil and enhance overall crop quality. These products demonstrate benefits like improved nutrient uptake, soil-bound nutrient solubilisation, and enhanced environmental stress resistance.

How can we help?

In the intricate dance of soil microorganisms and mycorrhizae, we discover a symphony of life that sustains the very foundation of our agricultural ecosystems. By understanding and harnessing the power of these microscopic wonders, we pave the way for sustainable and resilient agriculture, ensuring the health of our soils and the prosperity of future generations. 

Contact us today to explore how our microorganism solutions can contribute to your plant’s success. Your plants deserve the best; we’re here to help you achieve just that.

Article compiled by our Redox Agronomists 

Global shipping costs are rising due to Houthi rebel attacks on cargo ships near the Red Sea, impacting the Suez Canal and supply chains in Europe and the U.S. Shipments are delayed, and transportation costs are increasing.

In the week ending January 18, the average cost of shipping a 40-foot container worldwide rose by 23% to $3,777, more than doubling from the previous month, according to a report from London-based Drewry Shipping Consultants.

These issues extend beyond trade routes between China, Europe, and the U.S. Shipping rates from China to Los Angeles increased by 38% in the same week, reaching $3,860.

Philip Damas from Drewry Shipping Consultants notes growing unpredictability in international shipping. While big companies with long-term contracts are somewhat protected, many are paying extra fees, like a 20% surcharge, to cover higher expenses.

In Yemen, Houthi rebels attack commercial ships amid the Israel-Hamas conflict. Despite U.S.-led protection efforts, attacks persist, causing damage to cargo ships.

The International Monetary Fund reports a 37% drop in Suez Canal traffic in 2024 compared to the previous year. Major shipping companies, including A.P. Moller-Maersk and Hapag-Lloyd, reroute ships around Africa, adding over a week to travel times.

The Suez Canal is crucial to reducing international shipping disruptions due to its strategic location, providing a vital and time-saving maritime route that connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, allowing ships to bypass the lengthy and perilous trip around the southern tip of Africa.

Amidst the avoidance of the Suez and Red Sea by major shipping lines and the preference for rail transport across Panama, retailers assert their ability to handle delays. Nevertheless, Brian Bourke, SEKO Logistics’ global chief commercial officer, highlights that apparel companies, keen on timely spring fashion arrivals, are resorting to airfreight. Maersk and Hapag Lloyd, significant international containerised shipping lines, have suspended ship movements through the Bab-al Mandab Strait, linking the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. 

Although primarily impacting Asia to North Europe and Mediterranean routes, historical incidents suggest potential serious consequences in other regions if the situation persists.

Paul Zalai, the Director of Freight & Trade Alliance (FTA) and Secretariat of the Australian Peak Shippers Association (APSA), refers to events from March 2021 when the mega-vessel Ever Given ran aground in the Suez Canal “The impact of the waterway closure for six days threw vessel schedules internationally into disarray – this may fade into insignificance compared to the current conditions that are likely to continue for a significant period with other shipping lines likely to follow, understandably not wanting to endanger the lives of seafarers, the safety of vessels and the cargoes they carry.”

“We are likely to know more in coming days – should marine insurers withdraw policies for ships passing through the area or declare the Red Sea a ”war zone”, shipping lines will be commercially left with little option but to abandon this key waterway,” Zalai said.

Zalai says the withdrawal of vessel services from the route will mean their diversion via the Cape of Good Hope. “This will add about ten days to transit times and estimated arrival dates in North Europe and Mediterranean ports – we can again expect that shipping lines will recover these costs through additional surcharges on cargoes.”

Suez Canal problems compound with challenges at the Panama Canal, limiting ship passage due to a drought.

Party City in New Jersey, facing delays of up to a week and extra charges of $300 to $500 per container from Asia to U.S. ports, strives to ensure timely store deliveries despite setbacks.

Chicken gut health is crucial in antibiotics-free period. Some alternatives such as probiotics, postbiotics, prebiotics, bile acids, antimicrobial peptides, essential oils, and vaccinations have been gradually accepted in poultry production. 

Recently, a new alternative feed enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOD), has drawn attention to poultry and swine industry.

The GOD is exogenously produced by specific fungi fermentation to oxidize β-D-Glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide, consuming large amounts of oxygen at the same time in the chicken gut. Therefore, it can protect against oxidative stress and directly kill some pathogenic bacteria or Eimeria parasites.

Recently a thermal stable GOD is commercially available, and Table 1 clearly shows that at 85 °C, the enzyme recovery rate of this GOD maintains 92%.

Table 1. Thermostability of different GOD (3 minutes bath incubation)

 

In general, adding 2000 U/kg GOD to layer chicken feed increased egg production from 88% to 90% within 4 weeks of production. Egg weight increased from 60.8 to 61.4 gram/egg.

Adding 3000 u/Kg GOD to broiler chicken diets increased body weight gain by 3.44% and FCR was improved by 6 points.

A study compiled by our Redox Animal Nutritionists.

In the world of agriculture, the battle for survival against nature’s forces is relentless. Factors such as light deficiency, water scarcity, pests, diseases, salinity, wind, and phytotoxicity continually challenge the resilience of plants. To aid in this ongoing struggle, Redox, in collaboration with CJ Bio, introduces AMIBOOST® —a high-quality biostimulant enriched with specialized amino acids. This remarkable product is meticulously designed to bolster crop yield and quality, addressing the needs of various plant types and growth stages. These amino acids act as catalysts for the plant’s secondary metabolism, a vital part of its immune system, enabling plants to thrive even in the face of adversity.

But surviving under stress is not the epitome of plant health. Instead, the plant has to divert its resources from primary metabolism, which deals with growth and development, to cope with these challenges. This is where amino acids come into play as an essential tool to bolster the plant’s defences and recovery mechanisms. They act as biostimulants that can make all the difference in a stressful situation.

Recognising that it wouldn’t be a single front of management that would solve this battle. To effectively combat stress, amino acids should be part of a broader strategy. This strategy should include factors like soil fertility management, pest and disease control, and proper irrigation, all of which contribute to a plant’s overall health and reduce stress. And an inclusion of Amino acids serves as a boost in these challenging situations.

However, not all amino acids are created equal in this plant kingdom, and the “L-amino acids” are the superheroes. Each amino acid has a unique role in this intricate world of plant survival, combating biotic and abiotic stressors.

Introducing the future of agricultural excellence: The latest innovation, Amiboost ROOT, Amiboost DEVELOPMENT, and Amiboost HARVEST. AMIBOOST’s superior biostimulants redefine crop yields, whether you’re cultivating grains, fruits, or vegetables. Crafted to harmonize with your local environment and quality standards, this revolutionary product ensures convenience for sellers and satisfaction for their customers. Elevate your crop with Amiboost – the key to unlock exceptional performance.

Understanding Plant Stress

The term “plant stress” encompasses various factors that disrupt a plant’s normal functions. These can range from insufficient light, water scarcity, salinity, strong winds, phytotoxicity, and pest and disease attacks, hindering a plant’s total development.

Plants employ two metabolic strategies: primary and secondary metabolism. Primary metabolism is associated with growth, including plant development, root and leaf expansion, and photosynthesis activity. In contrast, secondary metabolism acts as a plant’s immune system, a survival mechanism for adverse conditions.

Enduring stress at the metabolic level isn’t healthy for plants. To thrive, they need to adjust their primary metabolism and activate secondary metabolism. This is where amino acids come into play as essential tools.

The Role of Amino Acids

Recognising that plant stress doesn’t arise from a single source is crucial. To effectively combat stress, amino acids should be part of a broader strategy. This strategy should include factors like soil fertility management, pest and disease control, and proper irrigation, all of which contribute to a plant’s overall health and reduce stress. Amino acids serve as a valuable bio-stimulant in these challenging situations.

Plants rely on proteins as they are the basic constituents of all living cells. First, it’s important to highlight that protein is formed by combining different amino acids; about 20 crucial amino acids can help plants grow accurately.

How does it happen? So, plants synthesise amino acids from the carbon and oxygen obtained from air and hydrogen from water in the soil, forming carbon hydrate through photosynthesis and combining it with the nitrogen the plants obtain from the soil. As a result, the synthesis of amino acids. L-Amino Acids are part of these proteins and have metabolic activity, including hormone and enzymatic functions, structure building, immune response, nutrient transport, etc.

However, an adverse situation can occur, and the plant cannot generate these important amino acids efficiently. Hence, feeding your plants L-amino acids makes them perform these functions efficiently and better, consequently minimising negative stress.

In this way, if the 20 amino acids can be directly supplied, it will help to overcome the limitations caused by plant stress.

The type of amino acid must be considered; products should contain L-amino acids, Laevorotatory amino acids, or L-amino acids, as those are the ones that plants can assimilate.

The Significance of Amino Acids in Plant Metabolism

Plants naturally synthesise about 20 amino acids that are indispensable for their metabolism. Think of these amino acids as the oil in a car engine. Just as a car needs the right type and quantity of oil to function correctly, plants require specific amino acids for their well-being. Without these amino acids, plants may require intervention to thrive.

Each phase of a plant’s development demands specific types and quantities of amino acids. Using amino acids at the right time physiologically activates a plant’s metabolism, promoting its growth.

By understanding the significance of different amino acids and how they function, we can better support plant growth, even in challenging conditions.

Understanding Biotic Stress

Biotic stress in plants results from pest and disease infestations within crops. What renders a plant susceptible to these attackers is its production of sugars and compounds that serve as a food source for them.

Amino acids like Tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan play a vital role in this scenario. They are directly linked to producing phenolic compounds in a plant’s secondary metabolism. These phenolic compounds act as natural defence mechanisms, functioning like antibodies that thwart disease development and make the plant’s sap less appealing to pests.

Plants Under Abiotic Stress

In the face of abiotic stress, compounds like Folcysteine come to the plant’s rescue. Folcysteine is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, and its primary function is to counteract free radicals, reducing oxidation. This is especially crucial because Folcysteine serves as a sulphur source and contributes to the synthesis of glutathione, a vital molecule in a plant’s defence system.

Proline plays a pivotal role in mitigating the effects of stress, particularly when it comes to hydric (water) and saline stress. It’s an amino acid renowned for its association with drought resistance, functioning as an osmo-protective agent, similar to arginine. Proline stabilises the plasma membrane, preventing structural damage, such as weakening the cell wall, especially during conditions like excessive temperature increases or water scarcity.

Abiotic stress in plants refers to the negative impact of non-living factors or environmental conditions on plant growth, development, and overall health. Unlike biotic stress, which is caused by living organisms such as pests and pathogens, abiotic stress factors are non-living and typically relate to various environmental factors.

Glycine is a crucial player in chlorophyll composition, facilitating the process of photosynthesis. Additionally, it assumes a critical role in maintaining the plant’s internal osmotic balance. Glycine is often accumulated in plants facing various stressors like excess water, salinity, cold, heat, and freezing conditions, as it actively contributes to upholding the integrity of cell membranes, thereby sustaining photosynthetic efficiency.

Addressing Phytotoxicity in Plants

These damages impair the normal development of plants, as they are mostly related to the interruption of production or distribution of photoassimilates. Injuries prevent the leaf from carrying out photosynthesis and can be a factor in loss of productivity. Amino acids are essential allies to minimise these harmful effects and encourage plants to recover their photosynthetic capacity.

Being small molecules quickly absorbed, they begin to act on metabolism in a few hours, transporting toxic elements and promoting the restoration of regular cellular activity in plants.

Heavy metals from the soil or in formulations used in crop management, nutritional elements in excess or with a high salt content, are examples of agents that cause phytotoxicity.

Histidine is an effective amino acid in complexing heavy metals such as cobalt, nickel, zinc, and copper.

Again, glycine is an essential amino acid in the composition of chlorophyll, and the isoleucine and glutamic acid in the growth of meristems, which are new tissues.

Roles of some amino acids in Adverse Situation.

  1. Aspartic Acid: It is a nitrogen source essential for producing other amino acids.
  2. Glutamic Acid: This amino acid plays a crucial role in the growth of meristems, the plant’s new tissues. It also serves as a precursor for chlorophyll and other amino acids since it carries nitrogen sources.
  3. Alanine: Alanine actively participates in the formation and germination of pollen grains.
  4. Arginine: Arginine offers resistance to drought, acting as an osmoprotectant. It is also involved in photosynthesis, growth, and the transport of nutrients to reproductive complexes.
  5. Cysteine: Cysteine is a pivotal amino acid. In addition to being a source of sulphur, it plays a vital role in synthesising glutathione, a crucial molecule in a plant’s defence system. It also aids in stress tolerance.
  6. Phenylalanine: This amino acid is closely linked to the production of phenolic compounds in the secondary metabolism of plants. These compounds act as plant defence agents, functioning like antibodies to inhibit disease development and making the plant’s sap less attractive to pests. Phenylalanine is involved in synthesising lignin, tannins, flavonoids, and the formation of salicylic acid.
  7. Glycine (1st Mention): Glycine participates in the formation of glutathione, phytochelatins, and betaine glycine. Betaine glycine is a compound that accumulates in plants under water-stress conditions, aiding in maintaining photosynthetic efficiency.
  8. Glycine (2nd Mention): Glycine is also essential in the composition of chlorophyll. It plays a critical role in photosynthesis and in regulating the intracellular osmotic balance of the plant. This amino acid is mainly accumulated in plants under various stressful conditions, such as water scarcity, salinity, cold, heat, and freezing stress, as it helps preserve the integrity of cell membranes and maintain photosynthetic efficiency.
  9. Glutamate: Glutamate participates in the formation of amino acids like arginine, glutamine, and proline. It also acts as a precursor for the chlorophyll molecule.
  10. Histidine: Histidine is recognised as the most effective amino acid for complexing heavy metals such as cobalt, nickel, zinc, and copper.
  11. Isoleucine: Isoleucine plays a role in the growth of meristems, which are new plant tissues. It also contributes to forming other amino acids and pollen grain germination.
  12. Leucine: Leucine is another amino acid that forms other amino acids and plays a role in pollen grain germination.
  13. Lysine: Lysine is responsible for regulating pollen grain germination and stomatal regulation. It is also a vital nitrogen reserve in plants and activates chlorophyll.
  14. Methionine: Methionine is a precursor for ethylene, a hormone that influences fruit maturation. It is also responsible for sulphur incorporation in plants.
  15. Proline: Proline is an amino acid associated with drought resistance, similar to arginine. It functions as an osmoprotectant and is used by the plant as a defence mechanism against water deficits and heat stress.
  16. Serine: Serine constitutes enzymes that activate proteins facilitating plant growth and the transport of nutrients in the plant’s sap.
  17. Tyrosine: Tyrosine is linked to the production of phenolic compounds in the secondary metabolism of plants. These compounds function as plant defence agents, inhibiting disease development and making sap less attractive to pests.
  18. Threonine: Threonine participates in forming other amino acids and is involved in pollen grain germination.
  19. Tryptophan: Tryptophan is associated with the production of phenolic compounds in the secondary metabolism of plants. Like tyrosine, it is a defence agent against diseases and pests, making the plant’s sap less appealing. Tryptophan also serves as a precursor for auxin, a root growth hormone, and influences the development of aerial plant parts.
  20. Valine: Valine plays a role in regulating the growth and maturation of fruits.

These amino acids play a fundamental role in maintaining the health and vitality of the crop.

How can we help?

At Redox, we understand the critical role that amino acids play in plant metabolism and stress management. We are committed to providing top-quality amino acid products that can make a significant difference in the health and vitality of your plants. If you’re interested in learning more about our amino acid products or have any questions regarding their application and benefits, we encourage you to get in touch with us.

Our team of experts is here to assist you in implementing an effective strategy to enhance your plants’ overall health and reduce stress. Contact us today to explore how our amino acid solutions can contribute to your plant’s success. Your plants deserve the best, and we’re here to help you achieve just that.

Article compiled by our Redox Agronomists